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YU: CHEM 2020, CHEM 3020; UofT: CHM138H, CHM247S, CHM249S, CHM348F, CHM343S, CHM342F; McM: 2OA3, 2OB3, 2OC3, 2OD3, 3D03, 4D03; UWO: CHEM2213a, CHEM2223b.
* YU: York University;
UofT: University of Toronto;
McM: McMaster University;
UWO: University of Western Ontario
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AP (Advanced Placement) Chemistry
1. AP (Advanced Placement) Program: Some universities/colleges grants credits to students in high school who prove by examination that they have achieved university-level proficiency in chemistry. The AP program is a cooperative education endeavor of secondary schools and universities. Through AP courses, high-school students engage in university-level study where they participate in classes that are more rigorous than most other high school offerings.
2. The Exam takes three hours including a 90-minute multiple-choice section and a 95-minute free-response section.
2. You will be provided with a periodic table for both sections of the exam, and a list of commonly used equations and constants for the free-response section. You can use a calculator during the first part of the free-response section.
3. Section I includes 75 multiple-choice questions, covering the contents of the general chemistry course usually taken during the first college year.
4. Section II includes three free-response quantitative problems (one on chemical equilibrium), one question that requires you to write balanced equations for chemical reactions and answer a short question about each reaction, and two essay questions. Each exam will have a laboratory-based question; this question can appear either as one of the quantitative questions in Part A or as one of the essay questions in Part B.
5. The free-response section gives you the chance to demonstrate your quantitative problem-solving skills, knowledge of chemical reactions, and ability to reason and explain ideas in a logical and coherent fashion. As you complete the free-response section, remember that you can use a calculator only during the 55 minutes allotted for the three quantitative problems.
6. The multiple-choice section and free-response section are each weighted as 50 percent of the final exam grade.
7. For commonTextbook List, refer to website. For For more detailed information, refer to website.
8. For sample multiple-choice questionsand free-response questions, refer to the website.
9. MPC provides instruction courses and Q&A courses for AP Chemistry exam preparation. The course uses well designed lecturing slides to summarize major topics and give detailed explanation on past exam sample questions. Students are encouraged to review by themselves and bring any questions for clarification.
MPC Education Centre provides courses for those students who would like to attend the AP Chemistry Examination and IB Examination to earn credits for college subjects while in high school. MPC also provides course to help students prepare the SAT Subject tests (Chemistry and Physics).
Topics Covered in AP Chemistry
Structure of Matter (20%)
1. Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
- Evidence for the atomic theory
- Atomic masses; determination by chemical and physical means
- Atomic number and mass number; isotopes
- Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers,
- Periodic relationships, e.g.,atomic radii, ionization energies,
electron affinities, oxidation states
2. Chemical Bonding
- Bonds: ionic, covalent and metallic
- Electronegativities and Polarity of bonds
- Lewis structures
- Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds
- VSEPR: Geometry of molecules and ions
3. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, halflives, and radioactivity;
States of Matter (20%)
- Ideal gas laws
- Equation of state
- Partial pressures
- Kinetic molecular theory
- Avogadro’s hypothesis and the mole concept
- Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature
- Deviations from ideal gas laws
- Intermolecular forces: Dipole-Dipole interation, London dispersion
forces and hydrogen bonding
2. Liquids and solids
- Liquids and solids from the kinetic molecular Theory
- Phase diagrams of one component systems
- Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
- Structure of solids; lattice energies
- Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
- Methods of expressing concentration
- Raoult’s law and colligative properties (nonvolatile solutes); osmosis
- Nonideal behavior (qualitative aspects)
1. Reaction types
- Acid base reactions; concepts of Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry and Lewis
- Precipitation reactions
- Oxidation-reduction reactions
- Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws;
standard half cell potentials; Nernst equation; prediction of the direction
of redox reactions
- Net ionic equations
- Balancing equations
- Mass and volume relations
- Empirical formulas and limiting reactants
- Concept of dynamic equilibrium
- LeChatelier’s principle
- Equilibrium constants
- Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc
- Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
- Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
- Solubility product constants
- Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis
- Concept of rate of reaction
- Determine reactant order
- Rate constants and reaction rate laws
- Effect of temperature change on rates
- Energy of activation; the role of catalysts
- The relationship between the rate determining step and a mechanism
- State functions
- First law: change in enthalpy; heat of formation; heat of reaction.
- Hess’s law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry
- Second law: entropy; free energy of formation, free energy of reaction;
- Dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes
- Free energy change, equilibrium constants and electrode potentials
Descriptive Chemistry (10-15%)
- Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
- Relationships in the periodic table: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal
trends, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first
series of transition elements
- Organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups