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YU: CHEM 2020, CHEM 3020; UofT: CHM138H, CHM247S, CHM249S, CHM348F, CHM343S, CHM342F; McM: 2OA3, 2OB3, 2OC3, 2OD3, 3D03, 4D03; UWO: CHEM2213a, CHEM2223b.
* YU: York University;
UofT: University of Toronto;
McM: McMaster University;
UWO: University of Western Ontario
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Unit E: Matter-Energy Interface
1. Calculate the kinetic energy created during the alpha decay of uranium-232 (m=232.037 131 u) into thorium-228 (m=228.028 716 u). Express your answer in MeV.
2. In a head-on collision of a 5.3-MeV alpha particle with a uranium-232 nucleus, determine the closest distance of the alpha particle before it is deflected back.
3. Thorium-231 is radioactive. It emits a beta particle and is also the product of alpha decay. Write the reaction showing the product of 231Th decay as well as the reaction statement that shows the mother isotope of 231Th.
4. Polonium-210, present in tobacco, has a halflife of 138 days, while polonium-218 that clings to tobacco smoke has a half-life of 3.1 minutes. If a smoker had 1 microgram of each isotope in his lungs to start with, how much radioactive Po would there be in total, after 7.0 minutes?
5. A phosphorus-32 solution is injected into the root system of a plant. A Geiger counter is used to detect the movement of the phosphorus throughout the plant. After 30 days, the radioactivity level is down to 23% of its
original level. Determine the half-life of 32P.
6. Assume that a rock originally had no lead-207, only 235U. If uranium-235 decays through a series into 207Pb in a half-life of 7.1E8 a, find the age of the rock if it presently contains 5.12 mg of 235U and 3.42 mg of 207Pb.
7. In the average person of mass 70 kg, there is an activity of about 3700 Bq due to potassium-40 in the food we eat. If 5% of these beta emissions are absorbed by the body and have energy of 1.0 MeV each, determine the amount of grays absorbed per year.
8. If a fast 5.0-MeV neutron emitted in a fission reaction loses 90% of its kinetic energy in each collision with the moderating deuterium nuclei, how many collisions must it undergo before becoming a thermal or slow neutron of energy 0.050 eV?
Unit A: Forces and Motion. Dynamics
1. The hinges of a 20-kg door, 2.4 m high and 0.8 m wide, are placed at the top and bottom of the door�s vertical edge. The door is supported by the upper hinge. a) What is the magnitude and direction of the force that the door exerts on the upper hinge? b) What is the magnitude and direction of the force that the lower hinge exerts on the door?
2. A weightless ladder 7.0 m long rests against a frictionless wall at an angle of 65degree above the horizontal. A 72-kg person is 1.2 m from the top of the ladder. What horizontal force at the bottom of the ladder is required to keep it from slipping?
3. A box of total mass 75 kg rests on a floor with a coefficient of static friction of 0.42. The box is 1.6 m high, 1.0 m deep, and has uniform weight distribution. a) What is the minimum horizontal force required to start the box sliding across the floor? b) What is the maximum height at which this force can be applied without tipping the crate?
4. The hand, forearm, and upper arm of a gymnast have masses of 0.4 kg, 1.2 kg, and 1.9 kg, respectively, and their respective centres of mass are 0.60 m, 0.40 m, and 0.15 m from her shoulder joint. Find the centre of mass of her unbent arm as it is held horizontally from her shoulder.
5. A freight elevator and its contents have a mass of 1.00 104 kg and are at rest. The steel cable supporting them has a stress equal to 10% of its maximum tension. a) What is the radius of the cable's cross-section? b) What is the strain on the cable when the elevator is accelerating upward at 2.0 m/s2?
Unit B: Energy and Momentum
1. The blades of a ceiling fan are spinning counterclockwise at 190 rad/s. If the blades' angular speed is changed to 80 rad/s clockwise in 6.4 s, find a) the angular acceleration. b) the angular displacement in radians. c) the angular displacement in degrees. d) the time when the blades came to a momentary rest before rotating in the opposite direction.
2. A wheel with a constant angular acceleration of 3.8 rad/s2 in 3.5 s rotates through 110 rad. Find a) the wheel�s initial angular speed. b) the wheel's final angular speed. c) Check the value of the acceleration by using another formula and the values you have calculated. d) Check the value of the angular displacement using two different methods.
3. The planets travel at slower tangential speeds as they move farther from the Sun. Find the time it would take Earth to catch Mars if they are separated by 30', with Earth behind Mars. (Note: It takes Earth 3.16E7 s and Mars 5.94E7 s to go around the Sun once.)
4. An electron of mass 9.11E31 kg moves in a circular orbit around a nucleus of mass 1.67E27 kg. If the radius of orbit is 5.0E11 m and the angular momentum is 1.05 10 34 kg�m2/s, find a) its moment of inertia. b) its angular speed. c) its angular kinetic energy.
5. A toy railway track, mounted on a rotating platform of radius 4.3 m and mass 600 kg, rotates at 6.4 rad/s counterclockwise. If a train with cars is added to the platform from rest and has a mass of 35 kg, what is the final angular speed of the platform and train? Assume the train circles the rim of the platform. b) If the train is running in the same direction as the platform with an angular speed of 3.1 rad/s, what is the final speed of the platform and train? c) If the train is running at 6.4 rad/s in the opposite direction as the platform, find the final speed of the train and platform.
Unit C: Electric, Gravitational and Magnetic Fields
1. A circular coil with 12 turns and a radius of 2.5 cm carries a current of 0.52 A. What is the magnetic field strength at the centre of this coil?
2. A long solenoid has 35 turns/cm. With a current of 4.0 A, what is the field strength at the core?
3. Two parallel conductors each carry 10 A of current in the same direction. a) What is the magnetic field strength at the midpoint between these wires? b) What is the field strength at the same point if the current ran in opposite directions?
4. A current of 2.2 A is applied to the voice coil. a) What is the force that acts on the cone and on the coil? b) What is the acceleration of the voice coil and cone if their combined mass is 0.025 kg?
5. An electric power transmission line has two wires 3.5 m apart that carry a current of 1.5E4 A. If towers are 190 m apart, how much force does each conductor exert on the other between the towers?
6. A particle of mass 6.0E-8 kg and charge 7.2E-6 C is travelling west. The particle enters a magnetic field of magnitude 3.0 T, where it completes one-half of a circle before exiting the field moving east. How much time does this charge spend inside the magnetic field?
Unite D: The Wave Nature of Light
1. Calculate the angle of the second-order maximum for monochromatic light of wavelength 550 nm if it illuminates a) a double slit with a slit separation of 2.0E-6 m. b) a diffraction grating with 10 500 slits in 1.0 m.
2. In Young's double-slit experiment, a monochromatic source of wavelength 560 nm illuminates slits that are 4.5E-6 m apart. Find a) the angle at which the first-order
maximum occurs. b) the angle at which the first-order minimum occurs. c) the angle at which the third-order maximum occurs. d) the angle at which the third-order minimum occurs.
3. What is the refractive index of a material that causes a shift of 12 bright bands if the thickness of the material is 3.60 microns and the wavelength of light used is 640 nm (1 micron=E-6 m)?
4. Calculate the wavelength of light used in an interferometer if 10 bright bands shift for a material in which the speed of light is 1.54E8 m/s and the thickness is
5. A thin film of gasoline on water, with a thickness of 364 nm, is illuminated by light of wavelength 510 nm. If the refractive index of gas is 1.40 and that of water is 1.33, will constructive or destructive interference occur for light falling perpendicular to this surface?
5. a) Calculate the angle of the second-order maximum for monochromatic light of wavelength 580 nm if it illuminates a single slit of width 2.2E-5 m. b) Calculate the angle of the second-order minimum for monochromatic light of wavelength 550 nm if it illuminates a single slit of width 2.2E-5 m.
6. Red light of wavelength 650 nm is beamed at a diffraction grating with 2000 slits per cm. Find the order number of the nodal line occurring at 11.25 degree.
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of the concepts and theories of physics. With the prerequisite knowledge from Grade 11 Physics students study further the laws of dynamics and energy transformations, explore electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields, investigate electromagnetic radiation and the interface between energy and matter. They will further develop learning skills through solving different levels of physical problems. About 400 slides and hundreds of practice questions and answers are available. The topics are detailed as follows:
1) Forces and Motion: Dynamics. The motion of objects in horizontal, vertical, and inclined planes, and the motion with reference to the forces acting on the objects.The motion in a plane. Solve problems involving the forces acting on an object in linear, projectile, and circular motion, with the aid of vectors, graphs, and free-body diagrams.
2) Work, Energy and Power. The concepts of work, energy, momentum, and the laws of conservation of energy and of momentum for objects moving in two dimensions.The laws of conservation of momentum and of energy (including elastic and inelastic collisions) through experiments or simulations. Solve problems involving these laws with the aid of vectors, graphs, and free-body diagrams.
3) Electric, Gravitational, and Magnetic Fields. The concepts, principles, and laws related to electric, gravitational, and magnetic forces and fields. The roles of evidence and theories in the development of scientific knowledge related to electric, gravitational, and magnetic fields.
4) The Wave Nature of Light. The wave model of electromagnetic radiation. Diffraction patterns, interference, and polarization. Phenomena involving light and colour, explain them in terms of the wave model of light.
5) Matter Energy Interface: The basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity and of the development of models of matter, based on classical and early quantum mechanics, that involves an interface between matter and energy.